Mitrovicë/Mitrovica Region hosts the vast majority of the K/IDPs. UNHCR estimated that there are 6,910 Kosovo Serbs displaced from south Mitrovicë/Mitrovica and other municipalities to north Mitrovica/Mitrovicë, Zubin Potok, Leposavic/Leposaviq and Zvecan/Zvecan. There are also 7,043 Kosovo Albanian IDPs, mainly in south Mitrovicë/Mitrovica originating from the northern part of town, Zvecan/Zvecan, Zubin Potok and Leposavic/Leposaviq municipalities. The K/Serb IDPs in Pristina Region are mainly concentrated in Gracanica/Gracanicë (which was established as a separate municipality 1st January 2010) and surrounding K/Serb populated villages. The K/Serb IDPs in Gjilan/Gnjilane Region are mainly concentrated in Strpce/Shtërpce Municipality with the K/Serb majority population.
During the war and in the first years after the war prevailing type of assistance was humanitarian in its nature (shelter, food, clothes, shoes, furniture, stoves, firewood, medicines, medical interventions) earmarked to the displaced persons and refugees, in particular those accommodated in so called collective centers. After 2002 most of the implemented projects were related to sustainable return (house repair and economic self-sustainability). Initiators of psycho-social support programs were the UN and the international organizations. Projects of support to women belonging to refugee, returnee and internally displaced population were implemented by the local NGOs with support of international organizations (economic, political and psychological women empowerment projects). Immediately after the war some NGOs implement projects earmarked to women – victims of violence (rape, physical and psychological abuse). In the recent years there appear projects which put women – victims of war torture into the focus of their activities. Trainings are organized and implemented for psycho-social work for the professional staff of mental health centers, social welfare centers and NGOs to deal with women – victims of violence.
According to the findings coming from FGD’s and LHI’s, the legal, institutional and policy framework to deal with mental health of displaced people, especially in a gendered aspect, is lacking.
Lack of evaluation and control; continuous lack of funds; poor professional capacity; lack of training for work with IDPs; lack of supervision over the work of experts providing psycho-social assistance; slow and complicated administrative bodies procedures; local community centers and social welfare centers neither have a separate registration of the IDPs, nor the assessment of their psycho-social needs and specialized women support programs; strict implementation of the applicable laws and attitude that dealing with problems of a particular group of population is a discrimination of others; bureaucratic attitude hinder any imaginative, client oriented approach, activism and self-initiative.
IDP population structure: older persons who were “at their best” during the migrations, women who lost their family members in war, youth who were children during the war.
Problems facing IDP population: among youth bad results in school and behavioral disorders – indication on trans-generational trauma transfer; permanent exposure to stress situations (housing, unemployment, poverty) - trauma accumulation; temporary resettlement due to flooding – re-traumatization; most frequent psychological problems –anxiety, neurosis, depression, PTSD.
Perspective, suggestions, recommendations: institutional transformation – to include issues related to IDP population care and protection into the social protection system since the remaining IDP issues constitute a “classical” social problems (housing, employment, poverty); capacitate social welfare centers to provide psychological consulting services along with provision of additional training to their staff for psycho-therapeutic work; make research on trans-generational trauma transfer; implementation of programs entailing psycho-social support for elderly women without relatives; opening of day-care centers for elderly persons, youth with behavioral disorders and persons with mental difficulties where women belonging to IDP population could be treated; develop projects including psycho-social work with women – war torture victims; signing of protocols on coordinated care in the mental health area at municipal level; strengthen capacities of local communities; hiring and continuous training of professionals (social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, neuro-psychiatrists); supervision over professionals in mental health field; strengthening of NGOs dealing with women members of IDP population; awareness-raising on the needs and problems facing IDP women through media, affirmation of good practice examples, establishment of women support groups.